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氮磷钾配施对多花黄精产量品质及养分吸收的影响
刘宇航1, 邓远苇2, 刘亚敏,等1
1.西南大学 资源环境学院;2.核桃产业技术研究所
摘要:
【目的】研究氮、磷、钾肥配施对多花黄精产量、有效成分含量和养分吸收的影响,揭示多花黄精的需肥规律,为多花黄精栽培提供理论依据。【方法】2018-2019年,采用“3414”试验方案,设置氮、磷、钾3个因子,每个因子4个水平,共计14个处理,测定不同处理多花黄精的产量、根茎多糖和皂苷含量以及地上部、地下部的N、P、K含量;采用回归分析法拟合氮、磷、钾肥施用量与多花黄精产量、根茎多糖间的肥料效应模型,使用频率分析法确定多花黄精的最佳推荐施肥量。【结果】氮、磷、钾肥配施能明显提高多花黄精的产量、根茎多糖和皂苷含量,在一定施肥区间内,多花黄精产量、根茎多糖和皂苷含量均随施肥量的增大呈先上升后下降的趋势,均在N2P2K2处理(N、P2O5和K2O施用量分别为160,160,80 kg/hm2)时达到最大值。氮、磷、钾肥对多花黄精产量、根茎多糖含量的影响表现为氮肥>磷肥>钾肥,氮、磷、钾肥对多花黄精根茎皂苷含量的影响表现为氮肥>钾肥>磷肥。氮、磷、钾肥配施对多花黄精地上部和地下部的N、P、K含量有明显影响,不论是地上部还是地下部,同一处理中植株N、K含量均高于P含量。拟合的氮、磷、钾肥施用量与多花黄精产量、根茎多糖间的肥料效应模型的相关性均达到显著水平(P<0.05),可知模型拟合成功。使用频率分析法,确定了本研究土壤肥力条件下多花黄精产量达14 000 kg/hm2以上及根茎多糖含量达100 mg/g以上时的氮、磷、钾肥施用量。【结论】综合考虑产量和品质,2年生多花黄精的高产优质施肥方案为N 145~167 kg/hm2,P2O5 129~158 kg/hm2,K2O 59~80 kg/hm2m(N)∶m(P2O5)∶m(K2O)为1∶0.92∶0.45。
关键词:  多花黄精  配方施肥  肥料效应模型  施肥方案
DOI:
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基金项目:中央财政林业科技推广示范项目(渝林科推2017-07);中央高校基本科研业务费专项(SWU119066)
Effects of combined application of N,P and K on yield,quality and nutrient absorption of Polygonatum cyrtonema
LIU Yuhang,DENG Yuanwei,LIU Yamin,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】This study researched the effects of combined application of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on yield,active ingredient content and nutrient absorption of Polygonatu cyrtonema and explored the fertilizer requirement of P. cyrtonema to provide basis for cultivation of P. cyrtonema.【Method】From 2018 to 2019,the “3414” experimental scheme was used to set up three factors of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium and four levels for each factor with a total of 14 treatments.The yield,polysaccharide and saponin contents in rhizome,and N,P and K contents in aboveground and underground parts of P. cyrtonema under different treatments were determined.The regression analysis method was used to fit the fertilizer effect model of the application amounts of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium fertilizers with yield and rhizome polysaccharide of P. cyrtonema.The optimal fertilization amounts of P.cyrtonema were also determined using frequency analysis.【Result】Combined application of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium fertilizers significantly improved the yield,rhizome polysaccharide and saponin contents of P. cyrtonema.The yield,rhizome polysaccharide and saponin contents of P. cyrtonema increased first and then decreased with the increase of fertilization amount,and all reached peaks in N2P2K2 treatment with N,P2O5 and K2O of 160,160 and 80 kg/hm2,respectively.The effects of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on yield and rhizome polysaccharide content of P. cyrtonema were in the order of nitrogen fertilizer>phosphorus fertilizer>potassium fertilizer.The effects of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on rhizome saponin content of P. cyrtonema were in the order of nitrogen fertilizer>potassium fertilizer>phosphorus fertilizer.Combined application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer had significant effects on N,P and K contents in aboveground and underground parts of P. cyrtonema.N and K contents in both aboveground or underground parts were higher than P contents in each treatment.The correlation of fitted fertilizer effect model reached the significant level (P<0.05),indicating that the model was successfully fitted.The application amounts of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium fertilizer were determined by frequency analysis for the yield of above 14 000 kg/hm2 and the rhizome polysaccharide content of above 100 mg/g.【Conclusion】Based on the comprehensive consideration of high yield and quality,the optimal fertilization scheme of 2 year P. cyrtonema was N 145-167 kg/hm2,P2O5 129-158 kg/hm2 and K2O 59-80 kg/hm2 with m(N)∶m(P2O5)∶m(K2O) ratio of 1∶0.92∶0.45.
Key words:  Polygonatum cyrtonema  formula fertilization  fertilizer effect model  fertilization scheme