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油用型元宝枫果实发育过程中油脂积累动态研究
畅 盼1, 顾锡亭2, 马建文,等2
1.西北农林科技大学 林学院,国家林业和草原局元宝枫工程技术研究中心,山东省林草种质资源中心,国家林业和草原局元宝枫工程技术研究中心,暖温带林草种质资源保存与利用国家林业和草原局重点实验室;2.西北农林科技大学 林学院,国家林业和草原局元宝枫工程技术研究中心
摘要:
【目的】研究油用型元宝枫果实形态特征及油脂积累的动态规律,为元宝枫果实的适时采收及油用良种的选育提供科学依据。【方法】分别于2019和2020年7-11月,以陕西杨凌地区优良元宝枫单株的翅果为试材,通过物候期观测,记录果实颜色和形态变化;采用索氏提取法及GC MS分析法分别进行油脂提取及种仁油脂肪酸组分与含量测定,分析含油率及各脂肪酸含量的变化规律,并对各成分进行相关性分析和主成分分析。【结果】元宝枫种子成熟期为开花后的205~220 d,此时种子形态肥厚而饱满,呈亮黄色;在此期间,种仁含油率呈先增加后略微下降至稳定的变化趋势,在花后175 d时含油率较高,达50%以上。花后145~160 d,脂肪酸总量达到最大值;神经酸相对含量表现为先增加后稳定不变的趋势,在花后190 d神经酸相对含量可达最高值,为6.24%,因此确定元宝枫果实高神经酸含量的适时采收期在花后190~205 d。在元宝枫果实各脂肪酸的积累过程中,彼此间表现出一定相关性,其中神经酸含量与种仁含油率以及芥酸含量呈极显著正相关。【结论】元宝枫果实于花后205 d左右采收,其含油率和神经酸含量均较高,品质最优;可通过选育高含油量的元宝枫种质来获取高神经酸含量的元宝枫油,以提高元宝枫果实的利用价值。
关键词:  元宝枫  果实发育  油脂积累  脂肪酸  神经酸
DOI:
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基金项目:陕西省技术创新引导专项(2020QFY10-01);西北农林科技大学试验示范站(基地)科技创新与成果转化项目(TGZX2020-37);山东省农业良种工程项目(2020LZGC00903);中央财政林业改革发展资金项目(鲁[2020]TG01号);科技创新合作项目(2020KJCX01)
Dynamics of oil and fatty acid accumulation during fruit development of Acer truncatum Bunge used for oil
CHANG Pan,GU Xiting,MA Jianwen,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】To provide scientific basis for timely harvest of fruit and breeding improved varieties of Acer truncatum,the fruit morphological characteristics and accumulation of oil during fruit development were studied.【Method】From July to November in 2019 and 2020,the changes of color and morphology of fruits from individual A. truncatum in Yangling,Shaanxi were recorded by phonological observation.The Soxhlet extraction method and GC-MS analysis were used to extract seed oil and analyze content and composition of fatty acids.Correlation and principal component analysis were also conducted for all components.【Result】The seeds matured during 205-220 days after flowering.At this time,A. truncatum seeds were thick with color of full bright yellow.The oil content of kernel increased firstly and then decreased slightly to a stable level.The highest oil content was more than 50% at 175 days after flowering.The total amount of fatty acids reached the maximum at 145-160 days after flowering.The relative content of nervonic acid increased firstly and then remained stable with the highest content was 6.24% at 190 days after flowering.The harvest time of A. truncatum with high content of nervonic acid was determined to be 190-205 days after flowering.During the accumulation of fatty acids in A.truncatum fruit showed certain correlation with each other.Among them,the relative content of nervonic acid was extremely positively correlated with the oil content of kernel and the relative content of evucic acid.【Conclusion】The best A. truncatum fruits with high oil and nervonic acid contents can be obtained about 205 days after flowering.The A. truncatum with high oil content can be selected to obtain high content of nervonic acid and improve utilization value of A. truncatum fruit.
Key words:  Acer truncatum  fruit development  oil accumulation  fatty acid  nervonic acid