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蒸汽爆破对烟梗色度及内在品质的影响
姚旭博1, 杨永锋2, 马扬扬,等1
1.河南农业大学 烟草学院;2.河南省中烟工业有限责任公司技术中心
摘要:
【目的】探索蒸汽爆破条件对烟梗品质的影响,以提高烟梗在卷烟生产中的可用性。【方法】以制丝线上膨胀前烟梗(汽梗)为研究对象,设定维压压力为0.8,1.0和1.2 MPa,保持时间为30,60,和90 s,采用两因素三水平完全试验设计进行蒸汽爆破处理,测定蒸汽爆破处理(T1~T9)后烟梗的常规化学成分、总细胞壁物质、致香物质含量,检测烟梗色度和膨胀度,分析不同汽爆条件对烟梗色度和内在品质的影响。【结果】经蒸汽爆破处理后,烟梗还原糖和总糖含量降低,而烟碱含量增加,其中T5、T6处理烟梗的糖碱比和两糖比接近于优质烤烟质量,氮碱比相对较低,含氮化合物转化及化学协调性较好,其果胶质含量较汽梗分别降低7.71%和14.59%,半纤维素含量较汽梗分别降低23.95%和18.46%,总细胞壁物质和木质素含量相对较低。与汽梗相比,蒸汽爆破后烟梗的亮度(L)、黄度(b)明显降低,红度(a)和色差值(ΔE)均显著增加,饱和度(C)总体降低,其中T1、T3、T4、T5、T7处理烟梗色度同烟叶较为接近;蒸汽爆破后烟梗芳香族氨基酸降解产物、西柏烷类降解产物和类胡萝卜素降解产物显著降低,而美拉德反应物、叶绿素降解产物和中性致香成分总量明显升高,其中T5处理烟梗致香物质总量最高,促进了美拉德反应物的产生,烟梗膨胀度较高(达到153.02%),膨胀效果较好。相关性分析表明,蒸汽爆破维压压力和维压持续时间与烟梗主要内在品质具有显著相关性,色度与部分化学品质具有显著相关性。【结论】蒸汽爆破维压压力为1.0 MPa,维压时间为60 s时,烟梗膨胀度达到153.02%,汽爆后烟梗的色度和内在品质相对较好。
关键词:  烟梗  蒸汽爆破  化学成分  细胞壁物质  色度  致香物质  膨胀度
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:河南省自然科学基金项目(212300410160);河南省中烟工业有限责任公司科研项目(ZW201822)
Effects of steam explosion on color and intrinsic quality of tobacco stems
YAO Xubo,YANG Yongfeng,MA Yangyang,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】This study explored the effect of steam explosion conditions on quality of tobacco stems to improve the availability of tobacco stems in cigarette production. 【Method】Tobacco stems before expansion on cut tobacco production line were treated by steam explosion with a two-factor and three-level complete experimental design.The pressure levels were 0.8,1.0 and 1.2 MPa and the durations were 30,60 and 90 s.Then,the effects of different steam explosion conditions on cell wall,color,aroma substances and expansion were analyzed.【Result】After steam explosion treatment,the reducing sugar and total sugar contents of tobacco stems decreased,while the nicotine content increased.Treatments T5 and T6 had sugar-to-alkali ratio and two-sugar ratio close to high-quality flue-cured tobacco,low nitrogen-to-alkali ratio,and good nitrogen-containing compounds conversion and chemical coordination.The pectin content of tobacco stems after steam explosion was 7.71% and 14.59% lower than that of steam stems,and hemicellulose content was 23.95% and 18.46% lower.Compared with steam stems,the brightness and yellowness of tobacco stems decreased significantly after steam explosion,the redness and color difference increased significantly,and the saturation decreased overall.Color of stems in treatments T1,T3,T4,T5 and T7 was closer to that of tobacco leaves.Compared with steam stems,the degradation products of aromatic amino acid,ceberane and carotenoid of tobacco stems were significantly reduced by steam explosion,while the total amount of maillard reactants,chlorophyll degradation products and neutral aroma components were significantly reduced.Treatment T5 had the highest total amount of aroma substances,promoted the generation of Maillard reactants,and showed good expansion degree of 153.02%.The correlation analysis showed that the steam explosion maintenance pressure and time had significant correlations with main intrinsic quality of tobacco stems,and the chromaticity had significant correlations with some chemical indexes.【Conclusion】Comparing main quality indicators of tobacco stems after steam explosion, the optimal conditions to improve color and intrinsic quality of tobacco stems included explosion maintenance pressure of 1.0 MPa,maintenance time of 60 s,and expansion rate of 153.02%.
Key words:  tobacco stem  steam explosion  chemical composition  cell wall material  chroma  aroma substance  expansion